[FREE] ECO-02 Accountancy-I Solved Assignment 2023-24

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Q1. Define accounting and explain its scope, objectives advantages and limitations.

Accounting is the systematic process of recording, summarizing, analyzing, and interpreting financial transactions and information of an entity to provide meaningful insights for decision-making, financial reporting, and control. It plays a crucial role in tracking an organization’s financial health and performance over time. Accounting encompasses various principles, methods, and practices that ensure accuracy, consistency, and transparency in financial reporting.

Scope of Accounting:

  1. Financial Accounting: This branch focuses on recording and reporting financial information to external parties like investors, creditors, regulators, and the general public. It results in financial statements such as the balance sheet, income statement, and cash flow statement.
  2. Managerial Accounting: Also known as cost accounting, this aspect involves gathering and analyzing financial data for internal use by management to aid in decision-making, budgeting, planning, and performance evaluation.
  3. Tax Accounting: This field deals with preparing tax returns and ensuring compliance with tax laws and regulations.
  4. Auditing: Auditors review an entity’s financial records to ensure accuracy and adherence to accounting standards. External auditors verify the accuracy of financial statements, while internal auditors assess an organization’s internal controls and processes.

Objectives of Accounting:

  1. Recording Financial Transactions: Accounting records all monetary transactions systematically to provide a clear record of financial events.
  2. Financial Reporting: It generates financial statements that communicate an organization’s financial performance and position to various stakeholders.
  3. Decision-making: Accounting information aids in making informed business decisions by providing insights into profitability, liquidity, and solvency.
  4. Evaluating Performance: Accounting enables the assessment of an organization’s financial performance over time, helping to identify strengths and areas for improvement.

Advantages of Accounting:

  1. Transparency: Proper accounting practices enhance transparency, making it easier for stakeholders to understand an organization’s financial health.
  2. Informed Decision-making: Accurate financial information helps management and stakeholders make well-informed decisions about investments, expansions, and resource allocation.
  3. Legal and Regulatory Compliance: Accounting ensures organizations adhere to financial reporting standards and tax regulations, preventing legal issues.
  4. Resource Allocation: Effective accounting enables efficient allocation of resources by identifying areas of excess and scarcity.

Limitations of Accounting:

  1. Subjectivity: Accounting involves some level of judgment, which can lead to different interpretations and potential bias in financial reporting.
  2. Historical Nature: Financial statements are based on historical data, which may not reflect an organization’s current situation accurately.
  3. Non-Financial Factors: Accounting primarily focuses on financial aspects and might not capture non-financial indicators crucial for decision-making.
  4. Estimates and Assumptions: Some financial measurements involve estimations and assumptions, which can affect the accuracy of reported figures.
  5. Complexity: Accounting rules and standards can be intricate and subject to change, making it challenging to keep up with the latest practices.

Q2. Write about the Bank Reconciniation Statement, what are the main causes of difference.

A Bank Reconciliation Statement (BRS) is a crucial financial tool used to reconcile the differences between an organization’s bank account balance as per its accounting records and the balance reported by the bank in its statement. Discrepancies between these two balances can arise due to various reasons, and the BRS helps in identifying and rectifying these differences.

The BRS process involves comparing and matching various transactions recorded in the company’s books with the transactions reported by the bank. By doing so, any discrepancies can be identified, and necessary actions can be taken to correct them. The main causes of differences between the bank balance in the accounting records and the bank statement include:

  1. Outstanding Checks: These are checks issued by the company but not yet presented for payment at the bank. As a result, the bank balance in the accounting records might be higher than the bank statement balance.
  2. Outstanding Deposits: Similarly, deposits made by the company that have not yet been credited by the bank can result in a higher bank balance in the accounting records compared to the bank statement.
  3. Bank Errors: Mistakes made by the bank in recording transactions can lead to differences. These errors can include incorrect posting of deposits or withdrawals or applying incorrect fees.
  4. Company Errors: Errors made by the company’s accounting department, such as incorrect recording of deposits, withdrawals, or checks, can lead to discrepancies.
  5. Interest and Fees: Bank charges, interest earned, and interest paid might not be accurately recorded in the company’s books, leading to differences in the balances.
  6. Direct Debits and Standing Orders: Automatic payments initiated by the company might not have been recorded in the accounting books, causing a difference in the balances.
  7. Bank Reversals and Adjustments: The bank might make certain adjustments or reversals to transactions, and these changes might not be promptly reflected in the company’s records.
  8. Timing Differences: Transactions that occur close to the end of the month might not be reflected in both the bank statement and the accounting records, leading to temporary differences.
  9. Bank Holds: In certain cases, the bank might place a hold on certain transactions, such as checks, which can delay their processing and cause discrepancies.
  10. Fraud or Unauthorized Transactions: Instances of fraud or unauthorized transactions can result in discrepancies between the two balances.

Q3. Write notes on the following concepts:
a) Going Concern Concept

The Going Concern Concept, also known as the Going Concern Assumption, is a fundamental accounting principle that underlies the preparation of financial statements. This concept assumes that a business entity will continue its operations in the foreseeable future and will not be forced to liquidate or cease operations due to financial difficulties. In other words, the entity is considered a “going concern” and is expected to operate and meet its obligations for an indefinite period.

This concept is essential because it provides the foundation for how financial statements are prepared and how assets and liabilities are valued. It has several implications and applications in accounting:

  1. Valuation of Assets and Liabilities: The going concern assumption affects how assets and liabilities are valued on the balance sheet. For instance, assets are generally valued at their historical cost rather than their liquidation value because the assumption is that the business will continue to operate and generate future cash flows.
  2. Depreciation and Amortization: Depreciation of fixed assets and amortization of intangible assets are calculated based on the assumption that these assets will provide benefits over their useful lives while the business continues its operations.
  3. Classification of Liabilities: Liabilities are classified based on their maturity dates. Short-term liabilities are those expected to be settled within a year, while long-term liabilities are expected to be settled beyond a year, assuming the business will continue its operations.
  4. Disclosure and Financial Reporting: Financial statements are prepared under the assumption that the entity will continue as a going concern. However, if there are significant doubts about the entity’s ability to continue operating, these doubts must be disclosed in the financial statements.
  5. Investor and Creditor Confidence: The going concern concept provides assurance to investors, creditors, and other stakeholders that the company will continue to operate and fulfill its commitments, influencing their decisions and perceptions.
  6. Business Planning: The assumption of continuity influences long-term business strategies, investment decisions, and financial planning. Management considers the potential risks and uncertainties that might affect the company’s ability to continue as a going concern.

b) Conservatism

Conservatism, in the context of accounting, is an accounting principle that suggests that when faced with uncertainty or ambiguity, accountants should err on the side of caution by selecting accounting methods and making judgments that result in lower reported profits and asset values. In other words, it’s a principle of being more cautious in recognizing gains and recording assets while promptly recognizing losses and liabilities.

The primary objective of conservatism is to ensure that financial statements present a more cautious and less optimistic view of a company’s financial position and performance. This approach aims to prevent potential overstatement of assets and profits, which could mislead stakeholders.

Here are some ways conservatism is applied in accounting:

  1. Recognition of Revenues: Under conservatism, revenues are generally recognized when they are realized and earned, which often means when there’s a high degree of certainty of receiving payment and fulfilling performance obligations. This prevents premature recognition of revenues that might not materialize.
  2. Recognition of Expenses: Expenses, on the other hand, are recognized as soon as they are reasonably foreseeable, even if there is some uncertainty. This ensures that potential losses are accounted for promptly.
  3. Valuation of Assets: Assets are typically valued at historical cost rather than at a potentially higher market value. This conservative approach prevents the overstatement of assets’ value.
  4. Allowance for Doubtful Accounts: Companies set aside an allowance for doubtful accounts to account for potential non-collection of accounts receivable. This anticipatory measure reflects conservatism by recognizing the uncertainty of collecting all outstanding receivables.
  5. Inventory Valuation: Conservatism can influence how inventory is valued, often resulting in the use of lower of cost or market (LCM) method, where inventory is valued at the lower of its historical cost or its market value.
  6. Provision for Legal Claims: If a company is facing a lawsuit, it might make provisions for potential losses related to the claim even before the outcome is determined, reflecting a conservative approach to potential financial impact.
  7. Impairment of Assets: When the value of assets such as property, plant, or equipment declines significantly, conservatism mandates recognizing an impairment loss, reducing the carrying value of the asset to its recoverable amount.
  8. Contingent Liabilities: Conservatism calls for recognizing contingent liabilities if their occurrence is probable and the potential loss can be reasonably estimated.

c) Consistency

Consistency, in the context of accounting, refers to the practice of using the same accounting principles, methods, and reporting conventions from one period to the next. It involves applying uniform and consistent practices in preparing financial statements and reporting financial information over time. The principle of consistency ensures that financial statements are comparable across different periods and facilitate meaningful analysis by users of financial information.

Consistency is important for several reasons:

  1. Comparability: Consistent accounting practices allow stakeholders to compare financial information from different periods, making it easier to identify trends, changes, and patterns in the company’s financial performance and position.
  2. Decision-making: Investors, creditors, and other users of financial statements rely on consistent information to make informed decisions about the company’s financial health, potential risks, and future prospects.
  3. Reliability: When accounting practices remain consistent, financial statements are more reliable and trustworthy, as they reduce the chances of manipulation or bias due to changing methods.
  4. Transparency: Consistency in accounting methods enhances transparency, as it reduces confusion and provides a clear understanding of how financial data is recorded, classified, and presented.
  5. Legal and Regulatory Compliance: Many accounting standards and regulations require companies to maintain consistency in their financial reporting. Deviations from consistent practices might raise concerns about compliance.
  6. Stability and Accountability: Consistency promotes stability within the organization by ensuring that accounting practices are stable and not subject to frequent changes. This allows for greater accountability and understanding of financial results.

d) Materiality

Materiality, in the context of accounting and financial reporting, refers to the concept that financial information should be disclosed if its omission or misstatement could influence the decisions made by the users of that information. Materiality is a relative concept and depends on the nature and amount of the item in question, as well as its potential impact on the decision-making process.

The principle of materiality recognizes that not all information is equally important or relevant. Instead, financial reporting should focus on disclosing information that has a significant impact on users’ understanding of a company’s financial position, performance, and future prospects. Materiality helps ensure that financial statements are concise and provide meaningful insights to users without overwhelming them with trivial details.

Key aspects of materiality include:

  1. Quantitative Threshold: Materiality is often determined by setting a quantitative threshold. Items that fall below this threshold are considered immaterial and might not need to be separately disclosed. The threshold is based on professional judgment, industry norms, and the impact on users’ decisions.
  2. Context and Perspective: Materiality is not solely based on numerical calculations. It also considers the context and perspective of users. What might be material for one user might not be material for another, depending on their needs and decision-making criteria.
  3. Nature of Information: The nature of information also affects materiality. Certain items, even if they meet a quantitative threshold, might still be considered material due to their significance in explaining a company’s operations, risks, or financial health.
  4. Cumulative Impact: Materiality should also consider the cumulative impact of multiple immaterial items. While individually these items might not be significant, their combined effect could become material.
  5. Regulatory and Legal Requirements: Regulatory bodies and accounting standards often provide guidelines on materiality to ensure consistent reporting practices within industries and jurisdictions.
  6. Disclosure and Transparency: Materiality ensures that relevant information is disclosed to users to enable them to make informed decisions. It contributes to transparency in financial reporting.

Q4. Sohan drew on Mohan a bill for Rs. 1,500 for 3 months on June 1, 2023. The bill was endorsed to Rohan. On July 15, Mohan approaches Sohan to renew the bill for a period of tree months and charges Rs. As interest. Sohan agress to renew the bill. Mohan pays the amount of interest in cash and accepts a new bill for Rs. 1,500. The bill is honoured on the due date. Record these transactions in the books of various parties.

  1. Initial Bill Issuance and Endorsement:
    • Sohan draws a bill on Mohan for Rs. 1,500 for 3 months on June 1, 2023.
    • The bill is endorsed to Rohan.

    Journal Entry in Sohan’s Books:

    Date: June 1, 2023

    Account TitleDebit (Rs.)Credit (Rs.)
    Bills Receivable1,500
    To Mohan1,500
  2. Renewal of the Bill:
    • On July 15, Mohan approaches Sohan to renew the bill for an additional 3 months and charges Rs. X as interest.
    • Sohan agrees to renew the bill.
    • Mohan pays the interest amount in cash and accepts a new bill for Rs. 1,500.

    Journal Entry in Mohan’s Books:

    Date: July 15, 2023

    Account TitleDebit (Rs.)Credit (Rs.)
    Cash150 (interest)
    To Interest Income150
    Bills Payable1,500
    To Cash1,500

    Journal Entry in Sohan’s Books:

    Date: July 15, 2023

    Account TitleDebit (Rs.)Credit (Rs.)
    Interest Income150
    To Bills Receivable1,500
  3. Bill Honored on Due Date:
    • The bill is honored on the due date.

    Journal Entry in Mohan’s Books:

    Date: Due Date

    Account TitleDebit (Rs.)Credit (Rs.)
    Bills Payable1,500
    To Bills Receivable1,500

    Journal Entry in Sohan’s Books:

    Date: Due Date

    Account TitleDebit (Rs.)Credit (Rs.)
    Bills Receivable1,500
    To Mohan1,500
  4. Rohan’s Entry (Endorsee of the Bill):
    • The bill was originally endorsed to Rohan.

    Journal Entry in Rohan’s Books:

    Date: June 1, 2023

    Account TitleDebit (Rs.)Credit (Rs.)
    Bills Receivable1,500
    To Sohan1,500

These journal entries illustrate how the transactions involving the bill issuance, renewal, interest payment, and eventual honor of the bill are recorded in the books of the parties involved.

Q5. From the following figures prepare Trading and Profit and Loss Account of Lakshmi & Co. for the year ended December 31, 1987.

Stock on January 1, 1987      40,000
Purchases                                98,000
Commission Received          650
Rent, Rates and Taxes         8,600
Salaries & Wages                  12,000
Sales                                        1,62,100
Returns Inwards                  2,400
Returns Outwards               3,000
Sunday Expenses                2,500
Bank Charges                      50
Discount Received             750
Carriage on Purchases      2,000
Discount Allowed              530
Carriage on Sales              1,700
Lighting and Heating       2,200
Postage 300
Income from Investments 500
Commission Paid              1,000
Interest paid on a bank loan 550
The stock on December 31, 1987 was valued at Rs. 26,000

Calculation of Cost of Goods Sold (COGS):

Opening Stock: Rs. 40,000 Purchases: Rs. 98,000 Carriage on Purchases: Rs. 2,000 Less: Returns Outwards: Rs. 3,000

Total Cost of Goods Sold (COGS) = Opening Stock + Purchases + Carriage on Purchases – Returns Outwards Total Cost of Goods Sold (COGS) = Rs. 40,000 + Rs. 98,000 + Rs. 2,000 – Rs. 3,000 Total Cost of Goods Sold (COGS) = Rs. 1,37,000

Now, let’s prepare the Trading and Profit and Loss Account:

Trading and Profit and Loss Account for the Year Ended December 31, 1987

ParticularsAmount (Rs.)ParticularsAmount (Rs.)
Trading Account
Opening Stock40,000Sales1,62,100
Purchases98,000Carriage on Sales1,700
Carriage on Purchases2,000Less: Returns Inwards2,400
Gross Profit c/d
(To Transfer to P&L)
Profit and Loss Account
Lighting and Heating2,200Commission Received650
Rent, Rates and Taxes8,600Income from Investments500
Salaries & Wages12,000Less: Commission Paid1,000
Sunday Expenses2,500Discount Allowed530
Bank Charges50Postage300
Discount Received750Interest Paid550
Carriage on Sales1,700
Net Profit c/d
(To Transfer to Capital)

In this Trading and Profit and Loss Account, we calculated the Gross Profit by deducting the Cost of Goods Sold (COGS) from the Total Sales. The expenses and incomes were categorized as per the given information. The Gross Profit is then transferred to the Profit and Loss Account, and after considering the various expenses and incomes, the Net Profit is calculated. The Net Profit is transferred to the Capital account.