## IGNOU MCA 5th Semester Solved Assignment for 2017-2018

### MCSE-003 Artificial Intelligence and Knowledge Management

#### QUESTIONS SOLVED IN ASSIGNMENT:

- Discuss the Turing Test & Chinese room test in detail. How these two tests addresses the machine intelligence over the human intelligence? Which test has edge over the other? Justify your answer with suitable arguments.
- Differentiate between Predicate & Propositional logic. Identify some application areas where Predicate & Propositional logic is used. Write De-Morgan’s laws for Predicate & Propositional logic. Do the Universal Quantification & Existential Quantification, represents generalized version of conjunction & disjunction operations, respectively? Justify your answer with suitable arguments. Using which mechanism you verify the validity of the statement? Discuss with suitable example.

For each of the following formulae, construct a truth-table, and then determine whether it is valid, consistent or inconsistent: (i) (~ C ® ~ D) ® (D ® C)

(ii) ((~ C n D) → B) ® (~ C ® B) - Why do we need to do the Normalization of any Well Form Formula (WFF)? What is the practical utility of deriving the Conjunctive Normal Form (CNF) & Disjunctive Normal Form (DNF)? Determine whether the equivalence between the formulae on two sides of ‘=’ holds or not (A ® B) ® C = (A ® B) ® (A ® C)? Reduce each of the given formulae on the two sides of ‘=’ to one of the normal forms (DNF or CNF).
- Write the process of transforming a Well Form Formula or FOPL expression in to a clausal form. What is the role of achieving Prenex Normal Form (PNF) in the above process, what is its utility? How Prenex Normal Form (PNF) contributes to the process of Skolomization. Write the steps involved in achieving PNF and Skolomization. What is the role of clausal form in the process of Resolution, in context of Artificial Intelligence? Skolomize the expression below : ∃ x 1 ∃ x 2 ∀ y 1 ∀ y 2 ∃ x 3 ∀ y 3 P(x 1 , x 2 , x 3 , y 1 , y 2 , y 3 )
- Translate the following three statements in First O rder Predicate Logic, and then deduce (iii) from (i) and (ii): Firstly without using Resolution Method and then by using the Resolution method
- Lord Krishna is loved by everyone who loves someone.
- No one loves nobody (iii) Lord Krishna is loved by everyone.

- How Programming Languages like C/C++/Java differs f rom Programming languages used for the purpose of Artificial intelligence viz. PROLOG, LISP. What are the additional components present in LISP & PROLOG, which makes them intelligent enough. What is the mathematical basis of PROLOG? Which polish notation supports the LISP ? Write the Following codes(provide suitable comments with code to express your logic)
- Write a recursive function in LISP named power that takes two numeric arguments, n and m , that computes nth power of m (i.e., m n ).
- Write a PROLOG programme that answers questions about family members and relationships. Include predicate s and rules which define sister, brother, father, mother, grand father, grand- child and uncle. The programme should be able to an swer queries such as the following:

? – father (X, mohit)

? – grandson (X, Y)

? – uncle (abdul, ruksana)

? – mother (mary, X)

### Perform The Following:

- Transform the FOPL statement given below in to equi valent conceptual graph

∀ x (Has Wings(x) Λ Layseggs(x) → Bird(x)) - Transform the following conceptual graph in to F OPL statement

[PERSONA: Anil] ← (AGENT) ← [DRINK] → (OBJECT) → [Food: Milk] →← (Instrument Glass) - Give Semantic Net representation of the facts g iven below : “Shobhit is a 52 year old Professor of Computer Sci ence in a University. The name of his wife, son and daughter are respectively Seema, Yashasvi and Savita”
- Create a frame network for terrestrial motor vehicles (cars, trucks, motorcycles) and give one complete frame in detail for cars which includes the slots for the main component parts, their attributes, and relations between parts. Include an as-needed s lot for the gas of each type mileage.

- Transform the FOPL statement given below in to equi valent conceptual graph
### Perform The Following:

- For the following fuzzy sets:

X = { x /0.7, y /0.3, z /0, u /1, v /0.4} and Y = { x /0.3, y /0.8, z /0.6, u /0.9, v /0}

Find (i) X U Y (ii) X ∩ Y’ (iii) (X U Y)’ (iv) (X ∩ Y)’ - Write a note on Non-monotonic reasoning systems.
- Discuss briefly various methods/ mechanism for handling incompleteness of a knowledge-base.
- Describe briefly each of the components of an expert system shell.
- What is an agent? Discuss briefly different ( at least four ) types of agents.

- For the following fuzzy sets: