Note : This paper has two Sections. Attempt five questions in all, selecting at least two from each Section in about 400 words each. Each question carries 20 marks.
Q1. Discuss any two schools of interpretation of texts.
Answer: Humans constantly interpret the contexts and texts around them. Students of political theory read and evaluate competing interpretations of political texts. As a subject that is constantly fascinated by its classic texts, political theory necessitates an interpretation of not only the ‘words’ but also the ‘meaning’ of these classic texts. Such an interpretation is required to comprehend statements made many years ago in various contexts, as well as to make them…Read More
Q2. Elaborate upon Plato’s idea of philosopher king.
Answer: Plato has left the task of structuring society in the hands of the philosopher after he has completed the programme of studies outlined in ‘The Republic’.…Read More
Q3. Compare Plato and Kautilya.
Answer: There are constant comparisons between Oriental and Western thinkers. Western (Occidental) thinkers like Plato can be compared to Kautilya, a towering ﬁgure in ancient Indian political thought. Kautilya is thought to have been born around the time Plato died, making him Plato’s almost…Read More
Q4. Write short notes on the following:
(a) Plato’s scheme of elementary education.
Answer: Plato deﬁned education as a conversion, or a complete shift from the world of appearances to the world of reality. ‘The conversion of the souls’, says Plato, ‘is not to put the power of sight in the soul’s eye, which already has it, but to insure that, instead of looking in the wrong direction, it is turned the way…Read More
(b) Plato’s critique of democracy
Answer: Plato saw democracy as a step towards tyranny for societies experiencing political decay. Democracies, according to Plato, are vulnerable to “majority tyranny” and demagoguery. To comprehend Plato’s critique of democracy, it is necessary to ﬁrst outline his analogy between the soul and the city. He introduces this…Read More
Q5. Critique Aristotle’s ideas on state and good life.
Answer: Aristotle’s ideas on the state and good life are central to his philosophy, but they are not without their critiques. Aristotle believed that the state was a natural entity that existed to promote the common good of its citizens. He argued that…Read More
Q6. Examine Aristotle’s classification of governments.
Answer: Aristotle prioritises the state over individuals. He recognised that diﬀerent contexts would result in the formation of various types of states and governments. Aristotle used the terms governments and constitutions interchangeably in his writings. He distinguishes several types of rule based on the nature of…Read More
Q7. Discuss Machiavelli’s views on human nature.
Answer: Without males, the State is unthinkable. Therefore, it is crucial to consider how politics and human nature interact. Machiavelli had a highly negative view of human nature, in contrast to Aristotle and other medieval philosophers who believed that sociality was a fundamental aspect of human nature. He claimed that …Read More
Q8. Write short notes on the following:
(a) Machiavelli on corruption
Answer: The ﬁrst person to examine how corruption functions in politics was Machiavelli. He maintained that the erosion of civic virtues caused by a lack of martial virtue made Italian civilization vulnerable to moral decay and political corruption. A republic can only exist as a whole if its citizens are …Read More
(b) Hobbes on state of nature
Answer: The notion of the state of nature, which is his conceptualization of the pre-political society before the development of the formal state or government, is one of the key and fundamental ideas in Hobbes’ political …Read More